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définition - summon

summon (v. trans.)

1.make ready for action or use"marshal resources"

2.ask to come"summon a lawyer"

3.gather or bring together"muster the courage to do something" "she rallied her intellect" "Summon all your courage"

4.(jurisprudence)serve or summon with a subpoena"The witness and her records were subpoenaed"

5.(jurisprudence)order, request, or command to come"She was called into the director's office" "Call the police!"

6.(jurisprudence)call in an official matter, such as to attend court

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Merriam Webster

SummonSum"mon (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Summoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Summoning.] [OE. somonen, OF. sumundre, semondre, F. semondre, from (assumed) LL. summonĕre, for L. summonēre to give a hint; sub under + monere to admonish, to warn. See Monition, and cf. Submonish.]
1. To call, bid, or cite; to notify to come to appear; -- often with up.

Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood. Shak.

Trumpets summon him to war. Dryden.

2. To give notice to, or command to appear, as in court; to cite by authority; as, to summon witnesses.

3. (Mil.) To call upon to surrender, as a fort.

Syn. -- To call; cite; notify; convene; convoke; excite; invite; bid. See Call.

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - summon

voir aussi

locutions

dictionnaire analogique


summon (v. tr.) [jurisprudence]








Wikipedia

Conjuration

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Native American "conjuror" in a 1590 engraving

Conjuration in traditional and most contemporary usage refers to a magical act of invoking spirits or using incantations or charms to cast magical spells. In the context of legerdemain, it may also refer to the performance of illusion or magic tricks for show. This article discusses mainly the original and primary usage, describing acts of a supernatural or paranormal nature. [1] [2]

The word conjuration (from Latin conjure, conjurare, to "swear together") can be interpreted in several different ways: as an invocation or evocation (the latter in the sense of binding by a vow); as an exorcism; as an act of producing effects by magical means.

The word is often used synonymously with terms such as "invocation" or "evocation" or "summoning", although many authors find it useful to maintain some distinction between these terms. The term "conjuring" is also used as a general term for casting spells in some magical traditions, such as Hoodoo. In that context, amulets and talismans are often kept in a "conjure bag" and "conjuring oils" may be used to anoint candles and other magical supplies and thus imbue them with specific magical powers.

Alternatively, the term "conjuration" may be used refer to an act of illusionism or legerdemain, as in the performance of magic tricks for entertainment.

One who performs conjurations is called a conjurer or conjuror.The word (as conjuration or conjurison) was formerly used in its Latin meaning of "conspiracy".[3]

Contents

Texts and language

The text of the charms to be recited to conjure the spirit varies considerably from simple sentences to complex paragraphs with plenty of magic words. The language usually is that of the conjurer's, but since the Middle Ages in Western tradition, Latin was the most common (although many texts have been translated into other languages).

Objectives of conjuration

The conjuration of the ghosts or souls of the dead for the purpose of divination is called necromancy.

When it is said that a person is calling upon or conjuring misfortune or disease, it is due to the ancient belief that personified diseases and misfortune as evil deities, spirits or demons that could enter a human or animal body; see demon possession.

Religious reactions

The notion of the action of a conjuration is traditionally linked to the task of repelling negative spirits away, and protecting an individual, space or collectivity.However, it is also believed by many, particularly in Christian and Islamic societies, that magic, and thus conjuration, is an inherently evil practice. According to these beliefs, conjurers summon demons or other evil spirits to cause harm to people or things, to obtain favors from them, or simply to enter servitude to such beings. The belief in similarly-minded conjurers also exists in belief systems in which magic is not inherently evil, although in these cultures these "black magicians" are not the rule and have opposition among more traditional magicians.

Conjuration in the Middle East

Conjuration is a very common mystic practice in the Middle East, most commonly found in Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Iraq. Many practice it to settle personal grudges or for healing, personal enhancement, or foretelling the future. There are also those who will sell their services as conjurers to others.

Islam strongly forbids the use of conjuration, because it is seen as an unholy procedure, and therefore to perform it is to give an insult to God. It is also considered to, in the end, harm people more than help them: those who regularly contact demons are believed to go mad through overdosing on power, or being possessed (since demons are thought to be short-tempered beings, and given the opportunity might overpower and enslave the one who summoned them).

Contemporary references

Within some magical traditions today, such as contemporary witchcraft, hoodoo and Hermeticism or ceremonial magic, conjuration may refer specifically to an act of calling or invoking deities and other spirits; or it may refer more generally to the casting of magic spells by a variety of techniques. Used in the sense of invoking or evoking deities and other spirits, conjuration can be regarded as one aspect of religious magic.

In the context of illusionist magic practiced today as entertainment only, "conjurer" or "conjuror" is still a common term used by practitioners. In times past, illusionist conjurors were suspected of using magic power to create their entertaining illusions and even suspected of casting spells. They were regarded as "magicians" by the general public, who were often not cognizant of the techniques and tricks used to create their illusions.

The term is used in (and is the title of) a 2008 movie "Conjurer" to refer to dark spirits.

Gaming

Conjuration is used in many video games, mainly RPGs, where it is usually referred to as summoning.

  • A notable example is the Final Fantasy franchise which incorporates summoning of monsters to fight alongside the characters.
  • The Conjuror and Magician class of the EverQuest franchise are able to summon elementals to fight for them, as well as food, drink, and weapons to name a few.
  • In the EverQuest franchise, Necromancers are able to summon undead to fight for them, but in EverQuest II, Necromancers can also summon such beasts as animated gargoyles, rats, hellhounds, and imps.
  • In Vanguard: Saga of Heroes, the Druid class is able to conjure up elementals to fight for them.
  • The Warlock class in World of Warcraft can summon demons and other players to aid them in combat. This was an extension of the original Warcraft RTS game where the Orc Warlock unit could summon Spiders (Minor Summoning) and the Daemon (Major Summoning), while the Human Conjurer unit could summon Scorpions (Minor Summoning) and the Water Elemental (Major Summoning). In addition, the Necrolyte unit was capable of summoning Skeletons if there happened to be any corpses in the vicinity.
  • The Conjurer class in the action-RPG Nox can summon various animals and supernatural beings for use in combat. A Conjurer may also take control of these same creatures as they appear throughout the game.
  • The MMORPG RuneScape has a summoning skill where players can summon various animals called familiars to aid them in many aspects of the game. Most of the familiars have both a combat and non-combat use. Non-combat uses include healing, teleportation, remote banking of items, beasts of burden, etc. The non-combat function of the familiars is by far the most popular usage of the familiars outside of player vs. player games.
  • In the PS2 RPG Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3, the Protagonist summons demons called "Personas", using a tool shaped like a gun, shooting himself in the head.
  • Conjuration is one of the skills a player can build up on in the single-player fantasy RPG series The Elder Scrolls, which is one of the several magical skills and gives you the ability to spawn creatures from other realms, as well as weapons and armour.
  • In Savage 2: A Tortured Soul the conjurer is a plant-like unit in the beast horde using natural powers to build and repair buildings as well as assisting other units in battle.
  • In the MMORPG Age of Conan: Hyborian Adventures the Demonologist class is capable of summoning and binding a demon to his or her service, while the necromancer is capable of summoning several undead minions (the exact number is dependent upon character level and feat specialization).
  • In the MMORPG Guild Wars the Necromancer class is capable of summoning Undead creatures, the Ritualist class is capable of summoning spirits, both Offensive and Defensive and the Ranger class is capable of summoning spirits which affect an area's players(both hostile and allied) around them.
  • In the MMORPG Risk Your Life The Runeoff Class is capable of conjuring Demon creatures.
  • In the game Kingdom Hearts, a player is allowed to summon a few Disney characters such as Simba from The Lion King and Mushu from Mulan.
  • In the MMORPG Regnum Online the conjurer can heal companions and summon a creature named Zarkit

References

See also

 

Toutes les traductions de summon


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