From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as various dissolved solids (chiefly chlorides), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. Sweat contains the chemicals or odorants 2-methylphenol (o-cresol) and 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), as well as a small amount of urea.
In humans, sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation, although it has been proposed that components of male sweat can act as pheromonal cues. Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to the latent heat of evaporation of water. Hence, in hot weather, or when the individual's muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced. Sweating is increased by nervousness and nausea and decreased by cold. Animals with few sweat glands, such as dogs, accomplish similar temperature regulation results by panting, which evaporates water from the moist lining of the oral cavity and pharynx. Primates and horses have armpits that sweat like those of humans. Although sweating is found in a wide variety of mammals, relatively few, such as humans and horses, produce large amounts of sweat in order to cool down.
Sweating allows the body to regulate its temperature. Sweating is controlled from a center in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus where thermosensitive neurons are located. The heat regulatory function of the hypothalamus is also affected by inputs from temperature receptors in the skin. High skin temperature reduces the hypothalamic set point for sweating and increases the gain of the hypothalamic feedback system in response to variations in core temperature. Overall, however, the sweating response to a rise in hypothalamic ('core') temperature is much larger than the response to the same increase in average skin temperature. The process of sweating decreases core temperature, whereas the process of evaporation decreases surface temperature.
There are two situations in which our nerves will stimulate sweat glands making us sweat: during physical heat and emotional stress. Emotionally induced sweating is generally restricted to palms, soles, and sometimes the forehead, while physical heat induced sweating occurs throughout the body. 
Sweat is not pure water; it always contains a small amount (0.2–1%) of solute. When a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, adaptive changes occur in their sweating mechanisms. This process is referred to as acclimatisation: the maximum rate of sweating increases and its solute composition decreases. The volume of water lost in sweat daily is highly variable, ranging from 100 to 8,000 mL/day. The solute loss can be as much as 350 mmol/day (or 90 mmol/day acclimatised) of sodium under the most extreme conditions. In a cool climate and in the absence of exercise, sodium loss can be very low (less than 5 mmols/day). Sodium concentration in sweat is 30-65 mmol/l, depending on the degree of acclimatisation.
Sweat contains mainly water. It also contains minerals, as well as lactate and urea. Mineral composition will vary with the individual, the acclimatisation to heat, exercise and sweating, the particular stress source (exercise, sauna, etc.), the duration of sweating, and the composition of minerals in the body. An indication of the minerals content is: sodium 0.9 gram/liter, potassium 0.2 gram/liter, calcium 0.015 gram/liter, magnesium 0.0013 gram/liter. Also many other trace elements are excreted in sweat, again an indication of their concentration is (although measurements can vary fifteenfold): zinc (0.4 mg/l), copper (0.3 - 0.8 mg/l), iron (1 mg/l), chromium (0.1 mg/l), nickel (0.05 mg/l), lead (0.05 mg/l). Probably many other less abundant trace minerals will leave the body through sweating with correspondingly lower concentrations. In humans sweat is hypoosmotic relative to plasma.
- Body odor
- Hidradenitis suppurativa
- Sweat gland
- Sweat therapy
- Eccrine gland
- Apocrine gland
- ^ Mosher HH (1933). "Simultaneous Study of Constituents of Urine and Perspiration". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 99: 781–790. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/99/3/781.pdf.
- ^ Wyart C, Webster WW, Chen JH, et al. (February 2007). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Smelling a single component of male sweat alters levels of cortisol in women"]. The Journal of Neuroscience 27 (6): 1261–5. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4430-06.2007. PMID 17287500. Lay summary – UC Berkley News (6 February 2007).
- ^ Goglia G (January 1953). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "[Further research on the branched sweat glands in some mammals (Cavia cobaya, Sus scrofa, Equus caballus).]"] (in Undetermined). Bollettino Della Società Italiana Di Biologia Sperimentale 29 (1): 58–60. PMID 13066656.
- ^ Robertshaw D, Taylor CR (November 1969). "Sweat gland function of the donkey (Equus asinus)". The Journal of Physiology 205 (1): 79–89. PMID 5347721. PMC 1348626. http://www.jphysiol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=5347721.
- ^ McDonald RE, Fleming RI, Beeley JG, et al. (2009). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva"]. PLoS ONE 4 (5): e5726. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005726. PMID 19478940.
- ^ Kameia, Tomoya; Tsudab, Takao; Kitagawab, Shinya; Naitoha, Ken; Nakashimaa, Koji; Ohhashi, Toshio (June 1998). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Physical stimuli and emotional stress-induced sweat secretions in the human palm and forehead"]. Analytica Chimica Acta 365 (1-3): 319–326. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(97)00642-9.
- ^ Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exer...[Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007] - PubMed Result
- ^ Cohn JR, Emmett EA (1978). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "The excretion of trace metals in human sweat"]. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 8 (4): 270–5. PMID 686643.
- ^ Saraymen, Recep; Kılıç, Eser; Yazar, Süleyman (2004). "Sweat Copper, Zinc, Iron, Magnesium and Chromium Levels in National Wrestler". İnönü Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 11 (1): 7–10. http://mail.inonu.edu.tr/~tipdergi/include/getdoc.php?id=79&article=35&mode=pdf.
- ^ Constanzo, Linda S.. BRS Physiology (4th ed.). p. 155.
- Sato K, Kang WH, Saga K, Sato KT (April 1989). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Biology of sweat glands and their disorders. I. Normal sweat gland function"]. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 20 (4): 537–63. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(89)70063-3. PMID 2654204.
- Ferner S, Koszmagk R, Lehmann A, Heilmann W (1990). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "[Reference values of Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations in adult sweat]"] (in German). Zeitschrift Für Erkrankungen Der Atmungsorgane 175 (2): 70–5. PMID 2264363.
- Nadel ER, Bullard RW, Stolwijk JA (July 1971). "Importance of skin temperature in the regulation of sweating". Journal of Applied Physiology 31 (1): 80–7. PMID 5556967. http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=5556967.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Perspiration|