whooping crane (n.)
1.rare North American crane having black-and-white plumage and a trumpeting call
voir la définition de Wikipedia
Ordre des Gruiformes (fr)[ClasseTaxo.]
family Gruidae, Gruidae[membre]
crane, stretch out[Dérivé]
whooping crane (n.)
|Distribution map of the Whooping Crane. blue: breeding, orange: wintering, green: year-round, grey: experimental year-round|
The Whooping Crane (Grus americana), the tallest North American bird, is an endangered crane species named for its whooping sound. Along with the Sandhill Crane, it is one of only two crane species found in North America. The Whooping Crane's lifespan is estimated to be 22 to 24 years in the wild. After being pushed to the brink of extinction by unregulated hunting and loss of habitat to just 21 wild and two captive Whooping Cranes by 1941, conservation efforts have led to a limited recovery. As of 2011, there are an estimated 437 birds in the wild and more than 165 in captivity.
An adult Whooping Crane is white with a red crown and a long, dark, pointed bill. Immature Whooping Cranes are cinnamon brown. While in flight, their long necks are kept straight and their long dark legs trail behind. Adult Whooping Cranes' black wing tips are visible during flight.
The species can stand up to 1.5 meters (5 feet) and have a wingspan of 2.3 meters (7.5 feet). Males weigh on average 7.3 kg (16 lb), while females weigh 6.2 kg (14 lb) on average (Erickson, 1976). The body length averages about 132 cm (52 in). The standard linear measurements of the Whooping cranes are a wing chord length of 53–63 cm (21–25 in), an exposed culmen length of 11.7–16 cm (4.6–6.3 in) and a tarsus of 26–31 cm (10–12 in). The only other very large, long-legged white birds in North America are: the Great Egret, which is over a foot shorter and one-seventh the weight of this crane; the Great White Heron, which is a morph of the Great Blue Heron in Florida; and the Wood Stork. All three other birds are at least 30% smaller than the whooping crane. Herons and storks are also quite different in structure from the crane.
Their calls are loud and can carry several kilometers wide. They express "guard calls" for warning their partner about any potential danger, the crane pair will jointly call ("unison call") in a very rhythmic and impressive way in the early morning (after waking up), after courtship and for defending their territory. The first unison call every recorded in the wild was taken in the Whooping Cranes' wintering area in the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in December 1999 and is documented here 
The muskeg of the taiga in Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta, Canada, and the surrounding area was the last remnant of the former nesting habitat of the Whooping Crane Summer Range. However, with the recent Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership Reintroduction Project, Whooping Cranes nested naturally for the first time in 100 years in the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in central Wisconsin, USA. They nest on the ground, usually on a raised area in a marsh. The female lays 1 or 2 eggs, usually in late-April to mid-May. The blotchy, olive-colored eggs average 2½ inches in breadth and 4 inches in length (60 by 100 mm), and weigh about 6.7 oz (190 g). The incubation period is 29–31 days. Both parents brood the young, although the female is more likely to directly tend to the young. Usually no more than one young bird survives in a season. The parents often feed the young for 6–8 months after birth and the terminus of the offspring-parent relationship occurs after about 1 year.
Breeding populations winter along the Gulf coast of Texas, USA, near Corpus Christi on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge and along Sunset Lake in Portland, Matagorda Island, Isla San Jose, and portions of the Lamar Peninsula and Welder Point, which is on the east side of San Antonio Bay.
Six Whooping Crane wintered on Granger Lake in Central TX in 2011/2012. The group was made up of two mated pairs and their single offspring. One adult bird flew ahead to Aransas National Wildlife Refuge early in the season, but returned again to rejoin it's mate and offspring. Drought conditions in 2011 exposed much of the lake bed, creating ample feeding grounds for this small group of cranes.
The Whooping Crane is endangered mainly as a result of habitat loss, although whoopers are also still illegally shot despite this being subject to substantial financial penalties and possible prison time.
At one time, the range for these birds extended throughout midwestern North America. In 1941, the wild population consisted of 21 birds. Conservation efforts have led to a population increase; as of April 2007 there were about 340 Whooping Cranes living in the wild, and another 145 living in captivity. The Whooping Crane is still one of the rarest birds in North America. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service confirmed that 266 Whooping Cranes made the migration to Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in 2007.
Among the many potential nest and brood predators include American Black Bear (Ursus americanus), Wolverine (Gulo gulo), Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Lynx (Lynx canadensis), Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and Common Raven (Corvus corax). Golden eagles have killed young Whooping Cranes and fledgings. The bobcat has killed many Whooping Cranes in Florida and Texas; whether the birds were taken on their nests or not is not specified. In Florida, bobcats have caused the great majority of mortalities among Whooping Cranes, including several adults and the first chick documented to be born in the wild in 60 years. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center scientists believe that this is due to an overpopulation of bobcats caused by the absence or decrease in larger predators (the endangered Florida panther and the extirpated red wolf) that formerly preyed on bobcats. At least 12 bobcats have been trapped and relocated in an attempt to save the cranes. American alligators have taken a few Whooping Cranes in Florida.
These birds forage while walking in shallow water or in fields, sometimes probing with their bills. They are omnivorous and slightly more inclined to animal material than most other cranes. In their Texas wintering grounds, this species feeds on various crustaceans, mollusks, fish (such as eel), berries, small reptiles and aquatic plants. Potential foods of breeding birds in summer include frogs, small rodents, smaller birds, fish, aquatic insects, crayfish, clams, snails, aquatic tubers and, berries. Waste grain, including wheat, barley, and corn, is an important food for migrating Whooping Cranes.
While in earlier years, Whooping Crane chicks had been caught and banded (in the breeding areas of Wood Buffalo National Park), and it has delivered valuable insight into individual life history and behaviour of the cranes, this technique has been abanded due to imminent danger for the cranes and the people performing the catching and banding activities.
By recording guard and unison calls followed by frequency analysis of the recording, a "voiceprint" of the individual crane (and of pairs) can be generated and compared over time. This technique was developed by B. Wessling and applied in the wintering refuge in Aransas and also partially in the breeding grounds in Canada over 5 years. . It delivered interesting results, i.e. that besides a certain fraction of stable pairs with strong affinity to their territories, there is a big fraction of cranes who change partners and territories. Only one of the exciting results was to identify the "Lobstick" male when he still had his band; he later lost his band and was recognized by frequency analysis of his voice and then was confirmed to be over 26 years old, and still productive.
The Whooping Crane was declared endangered in 1967. Although believed to be naturally rare, the crane has suffered major population deprivations due to habitat destruction and over-hunting. The population has gone to an estimated 10,000+ birds before the settling of Europeans on the continent to 1,300-1,400 birds by 1870 to 15 adults by 1938. The current population is approximately 382.
During the past two years, five Whooping Cranes in the Eastern population, which numbers about 100 in total, have been illegally shot and killed. One of the dead cranes was the female ("First Mom") who was the first captive raised and released whooper to successfully raise, along with her mate, a chick to adulthood in the wild in the East, in 2006. This was a particular blow to that population because whoopers in the East do not yet have an established successful breeding situation. Various agencies and individuals have offered rewards for the apprehension of the persons responsible. 
Although the individuals responsible for the deaths of four of the cranes have not yet been apprehended, on March 30, 2011, Wade Bennett, 18, of Cayuga, Indiana and an unnamed juvenile pled guilty to killing First Mom. After killing the crane, the juvenile had posed holding up its body. Bennett and the juvenile were sentenced to a $1 fine, probation, and court fees of about $500, a penalty which was denounced by various conservation organizations as being too light. The prosecuting attorney has estimated that the cost of raising and introducing to the wild one Whooping Crane could be as much as $100,000.
In October 2011, two juveniles were apprehended for shooting to death two of the first ten Whooping Cranes in an experimental Jefferson Davis parish, Louisiana, non-migratory population.
On the other hand, attempts have been made to establish other breeding populations in captivity.
In Wood Buffalo National Park, the Canadian Wildlife Service counted 73 mating pairs in 2007. They produced 80 chicks, of which 40 survived to the fall migration, and 39 completed the migration to Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. In May 2011, there were 78 mating pairs and 279 total birds.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Whooping Crane|
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